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TECHNOLOGIES GENERATED:

 

  Patents awarded: 

A repellent agent and a process for the preparation thereof

 Dodonea viscosa   

Patent No 317940

Date of grant:  08/08/2019 

Applicant: CSK HPKV, Palampur 

Inventor: Dr Ajai Srivastava

 

 

 

 

 

A.                 RICE IMPROVEMENT:

Over the last 35 years the Centre has released / adopted 25 rice varieties for different agro - eco - situations of the state as per details given below:

S.No.

Name

Year

Adaptability

Maturity

(Days)

Average

Yield (t/ha)

1

T 23

1971

Irrigated (< 1000 m)

140-145

2.5-3.0

2

IR 579

1975

Irrigated (< 1000 m)

140-145

4.0-4.5

3

Himdhan

1978

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

130-135

3.5-4.0

4

Himalaya 1

1982

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

115-120

4.0-4.5

5

Himalaya 2

1982

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

120-125

3.5-4.0

6

Himalaya 741

1986

Irrigated & rainfed (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

115-125

3.8-4.2

7

Himalaya 799

1992

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

120-125

3.7-4.0

8

Naggar Dhan*

(Japonica rice)

1992

Irrigated (>1200 m)

135-140

3.5-4.0

9

RP 732

1992

Irrigated (Low hills, <650 m))

130-135

5.0-5.5

10

Himalaya 2216

1994

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

125-130

3.8-4.2

11

RP 2421*

1994

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

120-125

3.7-4.0

12

Kasturi*

1994

Irrigated (<1000 m)

135-140

3.0-3.5

13

VL Dhan 221*

1994

Rainfed upland (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

100-105

2.5-3.0

14

Palam Dhan 957

2000

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

125-130

4.0-4.2

15

Hassan  Serai

2000

Irrigated (1000 1300 m)

120-125

2.8-3.2

16

Sukara Dhan 1*

2004

Rainfed (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

115-120

2.8-3.2

17

HPR 2143*

2005

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

125-130

3.5-4.0

18

HPR 1068*

2005

Irrigated (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

120-125

3.8-4.5

19

Bhrigu Dhan*

(Japonica rice)

2005

Irrigated (>1200 m)

150-155

3.3-4-4

20

Varun Dhan*

(Japonica rice)

2007

Irrigated (>1200 m)

140-145

2.5-3.6

21

Palam Basmati 1 (HPR 2612)*

2013

Irrigated (mid hills, 650 - 1500 m)

130-135

4.0-4.5

22

Palam Lal Dhan 1 (HPR 2720)*

2013

Irrigated (mid hills, 650 - 1500 m)

135-140

4.0-4.5

23

Him Palam Dhan 1 (HPR 2656)*

2016

Rainfed upland (mid-hills, 650-1300 m)

120 - 125

2.73.2

24

Him Palam Dhan 2 (HPR 2880)*

2016

Irrigated (low and mid hills, upto 1500 m)

120 - 125

4.5-5.5

25

Him Palam Lal Dhan 1 (HPR 2795)*

2017

Rainfed upland (low and mid hills, upto 1500 m)

120-125

2.7-3.5

* Under cultivation

 

A.                 RICE AGRONOMY:

On the basis of the field experimentation conducted at the centre as well as on the farmers fields, following recommendations have been made which have been included in the package of practices for Kharif crops of the University:

  For upland rice, farmers should use 60 kg seed / ha for sowing in lines 20 cm apart while for the broadcast method the seed rate should be enhanced to 80 kg/ha.

  Weed management has been a major problem in direct seeded sprouted rice under puddled conditions. A new recommendation on the use of pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 0.025 kg a.i./ha applied 8-12 DAS for direct seeded sprouted rice and 8-12 days after transplanting (DAT) for transplanted rice was made.  It was very effective in controlling the growth of grassy, broad leaved weeds as well as sedges under both sets of conditions. In addition, butachlor @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha for upland rice, butachlor + safener @ 1 kg a.i./ha for sprouted rice and butachlor granules @ 1.5 kg a.i./ha for transplanted rice, are other important herbicides for effective control of weeds in rice.   

  Optimum plant spacing of 20 cm between rows for upland rice and 20 x 15 cm spacing for transplanted rice using 2 to 3 seedlings/hill have been recommended.

  If the farmers is raising rice crop adopting SRI method, he should transplant 15 18 day old seedlings at a spacing of 20 x 20 cm using a single seedling/ hill. Seedlings should be transplanted within one hour of taking them out of nursery beds and roots should be kept straight. It is beneficial to keep 2-3 cm of standing water for a period of five days.

  A fertilizer dose of 90:40:40 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha has been recommended for transplanted rice. In zinc deficient soils 25 kg zinc sulphate/ha should be used.

  For efficient water management in upland rice, raising of field bunds by 25 to 30 cm is a must. In areas of low temperatures water level of 4 to 5 cm depth should be maintained and continuous flow of water from field to field avoided.


 

C.        RICE PATHOLOGY:

            Two recommendations for the control of false smut and glume discoloration of rice, respectively have been included in the package of practices for Kharif crops of the University over the last few years: 

  Spray copper oxychloride 50 WP @ 0.3% twice at heading and 10 days thereafter for effective management of false smut in rice.

  Provide three sprays of fungicides viz., first spray of Bavistin 50 WP @ 0.1% at booting, second spray of Indofil M 45 @ 0.25% 10 days after first spray i.e. at heading and third spray of Blitox 50 WP @ 0.3% 10 days after second spray for the effective management of glume discoloration and neck blast in rice.

In addition to these recommendations, a number of varieties / genotypes developed by this centre have been identified as donors for resistance to different diseases at the national level. Some of these genotypes are as below:

Disease

Resistant sources

Leaf blast 

 

HPR 1155, HPR 2001, HPR 2036, HPR 2083, HPR 2086, HPR 2129, HPR 2172, HPR 2186, HPR 2315, HPR 2317, HPR 2322, HPR 2352, HPR 2501, RP 2421

Neck blast

HPR 2125, HPR 2130, HPR 2143, HPR 2167, HPR 2355, HPR 2363

Leaf & neck blast

HPR 2072, HPR 2167, HPR 2174, HPR 2309, HPR 2322, HPR 2329, HPR 2504

Sheath blight

HPR 2001, HPR 2060, HPR 2083, HPR 2140, HPR 2163

Sheath rot

HPR 1160, HPR 1179, HPR 2001,  HPR 2002, HPR 2026, HPR 2362

Bacterial leaf blight

HPR 2001, HPR 2129, HPR 2315, HPR 2413, HPR 2505, HPR 2530

Rice  tungro virus

HPR 2001, HPR 2083, HPR 2310, HPR 2373

D.                 RICE ENTOMOLOGY:

Entomology
 

Survey and Surveillance:

         During Survey and Surveillance of insect-pests, a larval parasitoid namely,  Chrysonotomyia speices was reported  for the first time  on rice hispa from Himachal Pradesh. 

         An another species  of rice hispa namely Hispellinus moestus  (Baly) was  also reported  from kangra district for the first time.  

         Rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was also  reported for very first time from wheat crop in Himachal Pradesh.

         Severe defoliation  of paddy crop  due to  slug caterpillars (a new pest ) was reported from Tikari, Kathiara and Panaper villages.  The pest was reported for the very first time and farmers of the areas are advised to go for some contact insecticide against this menace.

 
New Emerging Insect Pests:

         Plant hoppers (BPH/WBPH): For the first time hopper burn due to mixed populations of WBPH and BPH was observed in mid hills of the state during 2007.

         Chaffer beetle adults hither to unknown pest has beome a major pest which feeds on the rice panicle during milky stage.

         White tip nematode has been found to be associated with rice crop at nursery  stage .

         Root-knot nematodes are becoming an alarming problem in rice-wheat eco-system. 

         Black beetle has been found to damage upland crop and the crop during nursery stage.

Control measures developed:
Rice hispa: 
Spraying   of chlorpyriphos 20EC (0.05%) 1250 ml /ha at 10 DAT or 40 days old crop (direct sown), followed by another treatment of chlorpyriphos (0.05%) or Neemazal (0.3%) or Econeem (0.5%) after 40 days of first spray. 
Leaf folder:
Clipping -off the affected leaves.
Removal of  weeds especially graminaceous ones.
Spraying of  1250 chlorpyriphos 20 EC (0.05%)  or 835 ml monocrotophos  36 EC (0.06%) per  500  L water /ha on the appearance of pest.
Plant hoppers (WBPH & BPH) -2007: Monitoring of   rice fields at weekly intervals in order to note  the appearance of the pest; spraying of  carbaryl 50 WP @ 1500 g/ ha or monocrotophos 1500 ml /ha; repeat the  application if hopper population persists beyond a week after application; and while spraying nozzles should be directed at the basal portion of the plants.
Chaffer Beetle 2009: Spraying of  cypermethrin 10 EC @ 625ml per hectare or chlorpyriphos 20EC @ 1250 ml per hectare at panicle emergence stage.
Case worm 2010: Spraying of chlorpyriphos 20EC (0.05%) 1250 ml /ha in 750 litre water per hectare at the emergence of pest.


Varieties identified as donors for resistance to different insect pest

Insect pests 

Donor varieties

Stem borer

HPU 824, HPU 838, HPU 862, Himalaya 2216, RP 2421

Rice hispa

HPR-1198, HPR 2025, HPR 2031, HPR 2033, HPR 932, HPR 2613, HPR 2720, HPR 2748 and HPR 2617

Leaf folder

HPR-2031, HPR 2032, HPR 2033 , HPR 2001, HPR 2002, HPR 2086, IC 548698, IC 548722

Gundhi bug

HPR 2054

Whorl maggot

IC 548698, IC 548722

Root knot nematode

Achhoo, Naggar Dhan

Wheat aphid

LTP-1-27, LTP-2-50, LTP-2-98 & LTP-2-99

 


 

E.                                 WHEAT IMPROVEMENT:

Over the last 24 years the Centre has released 12 wheat varieties for different agro - ecological - situations of the state as per details given below:

S. No.

Variety

Year of Release

Adaptability

Average yield (t/ha)

Early Sown (Oct.1st-20th)

1

HPW 251#

2007

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed)

3.0-3.3

2

HPW 360 ( Him Palam Gehun 1)

2016

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed)

2.5-2.8

Timely sown (Till 20th Nov.)

3

Aradhna (HPW 42) #

1992

High hills (Rainfed and irrigated)

2.5-3.0

4

Surbhi (HPW 89)

1996

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed / irrigated)

3.0-3.5

5

Palam (HPW 147)

1999

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed / irrigated)

2.5-3.3

6

Chandrika (HPW 184) #

2003

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed and irrigated)

3.5-3.8

7

Onkar (HPW 155)

2005

High hills (Rainfed /  irrigated)

3.5-4.0

7

Onkar (HPW 155)

2006

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed/ irrigated)

3.5-4.0

8

Asmi (HPW 249)

2008

Mid hills (Rainfed)

Mid hills (Irrigated)

2.5-3.0

4.5-5.0

9

HPW 349

2012

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed) Low & Mid hills (Irrigated)

2.5-3.0

4.5-4.7

10

HPW 368 ( Him Palam Gehun 2)

2016

Low & Mid hills (Rainfed) Low & Mid hills (Irrigated)

2.6-3.1

4.0-4.5

Late Sown(Till Dec. end)

11

 Aradhna (HPW 42) #

1996

Low & Mid hills

2.5-3.0

12

HPW 373 ( Him Palam Gehun 3)

2017

Low & Mid hills

2.6-3.2

           

   More than 20 wheat genetic stocks developed at this station have been included in NGSN for key characteristics like disease resistance to yellow rust and leaf rust and yield attributes

  More than 1129450 germplasm accessions from National and International sources including some land races have been evaluated till date and selected elites utilized in wheat breeding programme.

  About 303280 frontline demonstrations were conducted in farmers fields over the past ten years to demonstrate the performance of newly released wheat varieties covering an area of about 10500 ha.

F.                  WHEAT AGRONOMY / RESOURCE  MANAGEMENT: 

  In order to harvest about 2.2 t / ha green fodder at 85 days after sowing without any decline in yield from dual purpose wheat (VL 829), farmers need to use 25 kg additional seed (125 kg/ha) or 30 kg additional nitrogen (150 kg N / ha).

  Delayed sowing of wheat up to 1st December resulted in 20 to 34% reduction in grain yield as compared to the optimum time of sowing and therefore, its sowing should not be delayed beyond first fortnight of November. Further seed rate should be increased to 125 kg / ha in case of late sown irrigated and 150 kg / ha for late sown rainfed conditions.

  A fertilizer dose of 120:60:30 kg N, P2Oand K2O / ha for irrigated wheat and 80:40:40 kg N, P2Oand K2O/ha for rainfed wheat has been recommended.

  Use of isoproturon @ 1.5 kg a.i. / ha 30 35 days after sowing for controlling both grassy and broadleaved weeds when grassy weeds are dominant and a mixture of isoproturon @ 1.0 kg a.i. / ha plus 2,4 D @ 0.5 kg a.i./ ha when broadleaved weeds are more dominant.

  Weeds in wheat crop can also be effectively controlled by the spray of new herbicide combination product having clodinafop propargyl and metsulfuron methyl (60 + 4 g / ha). Application of this combination product, available in market as Vesta, gives effective control of both grassy and broad leaved weeds

G         WHEAT PATHOLOGY

  A large number of wheat lines have been identified as resistance sources for rusts (yellow and brown rusts), powdery mildew, leaf blight, head blight /scab and hill bunt. These lines were identified by creating artificial epiphytotics on various wheat pathological nurseries viz., IPPSN, PPSN, LBSN, HSSN, PMSN and HBSN.

  Postulation of Pm resistance genes in the AVT-1 and II year entries was done and powdery mildew resistance genes like Pm 3a, 3c, 5 and singly or in various combinations were found to impart resistance in Indian wheat.

  Dry seed treatment with Raxil @ 1 g/kg seed and wet seed treatment in 0.01% solution of Tilt 25 EC for 6 hrs were recommended for the control of loose smut.

  A new formulation of carbendazim, Mavistin 50 WP @ 2.5 g / kg seed was also recommended for seed treatment for the control of loose smut of wheat.

  Dry seed treatment with Dividend 30 WS @ 1 g/kg seed and wet seed treatment in 0.01% solution of Tilt 25 EC for 6 hrs were most effective giving complete control of hill bunt as compared to the seed treatment with standard recommended fungicide Vitavax 75 WP (0.25%). Also wet seed treatment with Tilt 25 EC was found to be economical costing just Rs. 0.15/kg seed as compared to Rs. 1.88/kg seed treatment with Vitax 75 WP (0.25%).

  Long term evaluation of wheat germplasm against powdery mildew revealed that a high degree of resistance was available in abundance in triticales, dicoccum and durum wheats whereas, in aestivum wheats, only a few varieties were having moderate resistance. 

  The efficacy of Tilt 25 EC (0.01%) solution used for seed dip against loose smut goes on decreasing with serial dipping of seed lots in left over solutions and can at best be used only twice.

Future strategy/ Thrust area:

         To introduce and develop early maturing, blast resistant & bacterial blight resistant rice hybrid / varieties for irrigated areas.

         Identification and development of special high value rice varieties e.g. red rices, local scented/ high quality rices among the traditional rice germplasm and explore possibilities for their upscaling for blast resistance to make them highly competent export candidates.

         Integration of nutritional quality of red rices with aroma and taste from basmati and traditional rice.

         Development of high yielding yellow rust and powdery mildew resistant wheat varieties for different agro-climatic conditions.

         Development of water use efficient/ drought tolerant and nutrient use efficient wheat genotypes for low-input agriculture of hills.

         Development of Integrated Disease and Pest Management (IDPM) and Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) technologies for rice and wheat based cropping systems.

         Studies on newer methods of rice establishment viz., SRI, ICM and Drum Seedling and the disease and insect pest problems related to these cropping systems.

         Development of technology for organic cultivation of high value rice i.e. scented & red rices.

         Formulation and commercialization of indigenous botanicals against major insect-pests and diseases in rice and wheat.

         Identification and exploitation of natural enemies for the control of rice folder and rice hispa in Himachal Pradesh.

         Studies on the root-knot nematodes in rice-wheat ecosystem and its impact on yield.

         Evaluation/ development of technology for Zero-Budget farming both in rice  and wheat